Adam, Lilith, Naamah and Eve
Part 3- Adam & Eve
Before we get into this topic keep in mind that folklore & mythology are stories of things from past history
told by word of mouth throughout time as a record so we don’t forget.
That being said, let’s begin:
Eve (Hebrew: חַוָּה, Classical Hebrew: Ḥawwāh, Modern Israeli Hebrew: Khavah, Arabic: حواء, Syriac: ܚܘܐ, Tigrinya: ሕይዋን? or Hiywan) was, according to Abrahamic religions, the first woman created by God.
The Hebrew name Eve (חַוָּה) bears resemblance to an Aramaic word for “snake” (O.Arb.: חוה; J.Arm.: חִוְיָא).
In the Bible, Eve (Hawwa’; Ge’ez: ሕይዋን or Hiywan, “living one” or “source of life”, related to ḥāyâ, “to live”; Greek: Εὕα or heúā, ultimately from the Semitic root ḥyw😉 is Adam’s wife.
Her name occurs only four times;
- the first being Genesis 3:20: “And Adam called his wife’s name Ḥawwāh; because she was the mother of all living.”
- In Vulgate she appears as “Hava” in the Old Testament, but “Eva” in the New Testament.
The name may actually be derived from that of the Hurrian Goddess Kheba, who was shown in the Amarna Letters to be worshipped in Jerusalem during the Late Bronze Age.
- It has been suggested that the name Kheba may derive from Kubau, a woman who reigned as the first king of the Third Dynasty of Kish.
- Another name, Asherah, in the first millennium BCE was Chawat, or Hawwah in Aramaic (Eve in English).
- In the Tyndale Bible Adam’s wife is called “Heua” in accordance with the Greek form Ἕυα (although in Genesis 3:20 the Septuagint says that Adam called her Ζωή).
Creation of Eve
Marble relief by Lorenzo Maitani on the Orvieto Cathedral, Italy
It was Adam who gave her the name Eve.
Eve lived with Adam in the Garden of Eden during the time which Adam was described as having walked with God.
Eventually, however, with Fall of Man, the pair were removed from the garden because she was encouraged by the serpent (or snake) to eat the fruit of the Tree of the knowledge of good and evil and, with the temptation, led Adam to eat of the forbidden fruit.
Though Eve is not a saint’s name, the traditional name day of Adam and Eve has been celebrated on December 24 since the Middle Ages in many European countries, e.g. Germany, Hungary, Scandinavia, Estonia, Lithuania.
The creation of Eve, from the Sistine Chapel ceiling by Michelangelo
Eve was created in the Garden of Eden to be the wife of Adam.
God decides that
“It is not good that the man should be alone; I will make him a companion fit for him.”
In Genesis 2:21–22 it states:
“And God caused a deep sleep to fall upon Adam, and he slept: and he took one of his ribs,
and closed up the flesh instead thereof; And the rib, which God had taken from man,
made he a woman, and brought her unto the man”
After her creation, Adam names his companion Woman, “because she was taken out of Man.”
“Therefore shall a man leave his father and his mother, and shall cleave unto his wife: and they shall be one flesh.”
Eve is also mentioned in the Book of Tobit (viii, 8; Sept., viii, 6) where it is simply affirmed that she was given to Adam as a helper.
An alternate tradition, originating in a Jewish book called The Alphabet of Ben-Sira which entered Europe from the East in the 6th century AD suggests that Lilith, not Eve, was Adam’s first wife, created at the same time and from the same dust.
The tradition goes that Lilith, claiming to be created equal, refused to sleep or serve “under him” (Adam).
When Adam tried to force her into the “inferior” position, she flew away from Eden into the air,
where she copulated with demons, conceiving hundreds more each day.
God sent three angels after her, who threatened to kill her brood if she refused to return to Adam.
But she did refuse.
So God made Eve from Adam’s rib to be his “second wife.”
Creation of Eve, sandstone from Montbenon (Lausanne), circa 1515.
On display at Lausanne historical museum.
Controversy regarding the “rib” continues to the present day, regarding the Sumerian and the original Hebrew words for rib.
The common translation, for example,
- that of the King James Version,
is that אַחַת מִצַּלְעֹתָיו means “one of his ribs”.
- The contrary position is that the term צלע or ṣelaʿ, occurring forty-one times in the Tanakh, is most often translated as “side” in general.
“Rib” is, however, the etymologically primary meaning of the term, which is from a root ṣ-l-ʿ meaning “bend”, a cognate to the Assyrian ṣêlu meaning “rib”.
Also God took “one” (ʾeḫad) of Adam’s ṣelaʿ, suggesting an individual rib.
The Septuagint has μίαν τῶν πλευρῶν αὐτοῦ, with ἡ πλευρά choosing a Greek term that, like the Hebrew ṣelaʿ, may mean either “rib”, or, in the plural, “side [of a man or animal]” in general.
The specification “one of the πλευρά” thus closely imitates the Hebrew text.
The Aramaic form of the word is עלע or or ʿalaʿ, which appears, also in the meaning “rib”, in Daniel 7:5.
An old story of the rib was told by Rabbi Joshua:
“God deliberated from what member He would create woman, and He reasoned with Himself thus:
I must not create her from Adam’s head, for she would be a proud person, and hold her head high.
If I create her from the eye, then she will wish to pry into all things;
if from the ear, she will wish to hear all things;
if from the mouth, she will talk much;
if from the heart, she will envy people;
if from the hand, she will desire to take all things;
if from the feet, she will be a gadabout.
Therefore I will create her from the member which is hid, that is the rib,
which is not even seen when man is naked.”
Biblia Pauperum illustration of Eve and the serpent
Anatomically, men and women have the same number of ribs — 24.
When this fact was noted by the Flemish anatomist Vesalius in 1524 it touched off a wave of controversy, as it seemed to contradict Genesis 2:21.
Some, for instance Samuel Noah Kramer, hold that the origin of this motif is the Sumerian myth in which the goddess Ninhursag created a beautiful garden full of lush vegetation and fruit trees, called Edinu, in Dilmun, the Sumerian earthly Paradise, a place which the Sumerians believed to exist to the east of their own land, beyond the sea.
Ninhursag charged Enki, her lover and half brother, with controlling the wild animals and tending the garden, but Enki became curious about the garden, and his assistant, Adapa, selected seven plants (8 in some version) and offered them to Enki, who ate them.
(In other versions of the story he seduced in turn seven generations of the offspring of his divine marriage with Ninhursag).
This enraged Ninhursag, and she caused Enki to fall ill.
Enki felt pain in his rib, which is a pun in Sumerian, as the word “ti” means both “rib” and “life”.
The other gods persuaded Ninhursag to relent.
Ninhursag then created a new goddess (7 or 8 to heal his 7 or 8 ailing organs, including his rib) named Ninti,
(a name composed of “Nin”, or “lady”, and “ti”, and which can be translated as both “Lady of Living” and “Lady of the Rib”), to cure Enki.
Neither Ninhursag nor Ninti are exact parallels of Eve, since both differ from the character.
However, given that the pun with rib is present only in Sumerian, linguistic criticism places the Sumerian account
as the more ancient and therefore, a possible narrative influence on the Judeo-Christian story of creation.
Temptation, fall, and expulsion from the garden
Adam, Eve, and the (female) serpent at the entrance to Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris, France.
The portrayal of the image of the serpent as a mirror of Eve was common in earlier iconography as a
result of the identification of women as the source of human original sin
The serpent tells the woman that she will not die if she eats the fruit of the tree:
“For God doth know that in the day ye eat thereof, then your eyes shall be opened, and ye shall be as gods, knowing good and evil.”
So the woman eats, and gives to the man who also eats.
“And the eyes of them both were opened, and they knew that they were naked; and they sewed fig leaves together, and made themselves aprons.”
The man and woman hide themselves from God, the man blaming the woman for giving him the fruit, and the woman blaming the serpent.
God curses the serpent,
“upon thy belly shalt thou go, and dust shalt thou eat all the days of thy life;”
the woman he punishes with childbirth (and the pain therein), and with subordination to man:
“and thy desire shall be to thy husband, and he shall rule over thee;”
and Adam he punishes with a life of toil:
“In the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread, till thou return unto the ground.”
The man names his wife Eve, “because she was the mother of all living.”
“Behold, the man is become as one of us, to know good and evil.”
God expels the couple from Eden,
“lest he put forth his hand, and take also of the tree of life, and eat, and live for ever;”
the gate of Eden is sealed by: cherubim and a flaming sword
“to keep the way of the tree of life.”
Mother of humanity
According to the Bible, for her share in the transgression, Eve (and womankind after her) is sentenced to a life of
sorrow and travail in childbirth, and to be under the power of her husband.
While believers accept that all subsequent humans have Eve as an ancestor,
she is believed to be unique in that although all people after her were physically created from women,
Eve herself was created from a man.
Adam and Eve had two sons, Cain and Abel (or Habel), the first a tiller of the ground, the second a keeper of sheep.
After the death of Abel, Eve gave birth to a third son, Seth (or Sheth), from whom Noah (and thus the whole of modern humanity) is descended.
According to the Bible, Eve states
“God hath given me [literally, “put” or “appointed”, in Hebrew “shāth”] another seed, for Abel whom Cain slew” (Genesis 4:25).
In different religions
Even in ancient times, the presence of two distinct accounts was noted, and regarded with some curiosity.
- The first account says
male and female [God] created them (Genesis 1:27),
which has been assumed by critical scholars to imply simultaneous creation,
- whereas the second account states that
God created Eve from Adam’s rib because Adam was lonely (Genesis 2:18 ff.).
Thus to resolve this apparent discrepancy, some medieval rabbis suggested that Eve and the woman of the first account
were two separate individuals, Eve and Lilith.
Lilith, by John Collier, 1887
Another Jewish tradition, also used to explain the “male and female He created them” line,
is that God originally created Adam as a hermaphrodite (Midrash Rabbah – Genesis VIII:1),
and in this way was bodily and spiritually male and female.
He later decided that “it is not good for [Adam] to be alone,” and created the separate beings of Adam and Eve,
thus creating the idea of two people joining together to achieve a union of the two separate spirits.
It could also mean that there were more male & females created other than Adam & Eve..
Genesis 5:1-2 states:
“This is the book of the generations of Ad’am.
In the day that God created man, in the likeness of God made he him;
Male and female created he them, and blessed them,
and called their name Ad’am, in the day when they were created.”
So, according to this passage, God named the human race … Ad’am …??
Only three of Adam’s children (Cain, Abel, and Seth) are explicitly named in Genesis,
although it does state that there were other sons and daughters as well (Genesis 5:4).
“And Adam knew Eve his wife; and she conceived, and bare Cain, and said:
“I have gotten a man from the Lord.” Genesis 4:1
I find this statement by Eve strangely interesting because she says it about one of her sons, but not the other.
verse 2 says: “
“And she again bare his brother Abel. and Abel was the keeper of the sheep, but Cain was a tiller of the ground.”
Notice that Eve says nothing about Abel until Seth is born…
Also in Genesis 5:3 it says
“And Ad’am lived an hundred and thirty years, and begat a son in his own image; and called his name Seth: …”
These two things are very strange…….
Wouldn’t ALL of Adam’s sons have been in his image.. and wouldn’t Eve have said the same things about Abel & Seth as she did about Cain?……or is there something VERY important being left out of the story here?
In Jubilees, two daughters are named
- Azûrâ, first, and Awân, who was born after Seth, Cain, Abel, nine other sons, and Azûrâ.
Jubilees goes on to state that Cain later married Awân and Seth married Azûrâ, thus, accounting for their descendants.
BUT the Bible also states that Cain went to Nod and took a wife.. (the daughter of a gentile woman)
However, according to the Midrash of Genesis Rabba and other later sources,
- either Cain had a twin sister, and Abel had two twin sisters,
- Cain had a twin sister named Lebuda, and Abel a twin sister named Qelimath.
Then Cain kills Abel, but unlike what we are taught, they may NOT have been teenagers or very young.. although the timeframe is not specified, the Bible does say “And in a process of time it came to pass …” this reference is to the offerings brought for God.. God accepts one gift, not the other & when Cain is feeling rejected & unworthy, God talks to him. Cain then goes to talk to his brother & during that conversation something happened that angered Cain & he killed his brother. Again there is no time frame mentioned here, so it could have been hours, days or years.. no one really knows.
At this point God & Cain have another chat about what has happened & Cain is cursed & made to leave his home & become a wanderer/vagabond.
He leaves his home & goes to Nod, there finding a gentile wife of a pagan woman & having children…
So where did Cain get his wife if his parents were “supposedly” the First people created?
- To begin to answer this you need to understand the difference between “Jews” and “Gentiles”.
- The “first beings created in God’s image, “at least in some versions of this story”, were Adam and Eve.
- They were also the first “Jews”.
- There were also other humans (anyone not a Jew) on the earth (as proven through science as Evolutionary Theory). <<depending on what you believe anyway>>
- These other humans may or may not have been created in God’s image, were not given the special attention that the “chosen people” were given,
- were not protected like the Jews.
It was a gentile woman that Cain took as a wife.
Fast forward 2500 years and we find that in Jesus’ time on earth:
the gentiles were accepted into God’s kingdom because even though they were never given anything special by God they believed in Jesus.
Although incest was a part of early Jewish times Cain’s wife was not from this.
Read Genesis 1:27 again:
God made male and female on the sixth day (not just Adam and Eve).
Cain did not commit incest. There was no reason to do so. He went to a place called Nod and took a wife.
Here is where the myths & facts of genealogy get interesting…..
New International Version (NIV)
16 So Cain went out from the Lord’s presence and lived in the land of Nod, east of Eden. *Genesis 4:16 Nod means wandering (see verses 12 and 14).*
17 Cain made love to his wife, and she became pregnant and gave birth to Enoch.
Cain was then building a city, and he named it after his son Enoch.
18 To Enoch was born Irad, and Irad was the father of Mehujael, and Mehujael was the father of Methushael, and Methushael was the father of Lamech.
19 Lamech married two women, one named Adah and the other Zillah.
20 Adah gave birth to Jabal; he was the father of those who live in tents and raise livestock.
21 His brother’s name was Jubal; he was the father of all who play stringed instruments and pipes. <<remember him??>>
22 Zillah also had a son, Tubal-Cain, who forged all kinds of tools out of[b] bronze and iron. Tubal-Cain’s sister was Naamah.<<and them??>>
23 Lamech said to his wives,
“Adah and Zillah, listen to me;
wives of Lamech, hear my words.
I have killed a man for wounding me,
a young man for injuring me.
24 If Cain is avenged seven times,
then Lamech seventy-seven times.”
NOW Enter Adam & Eve again.. Adam is now 130 years old…..
25 Adam made love to his wife again, and she gave birth to a son and named him Seth,
“God has granted me another child in place of Abel, since Cain killed him.” << there she goes again with saying the weird stuff >>
26 Seth also had a son, and he named him Enosh.
At that time people began to call on the name of the Lord.
Other pseudepigrapha give further details of their life outside of Eden, in particular,
- the Life of Adam and Eve (also known as the Apocalypse of Moses) consists entirely of a description of their life outside Eden.
According to traditional Jewish belief, Eve is buried in the Cave of Machpelah.
Original sin, by Michiel Coxie The snake in this piece,
by the Workshop of Giovanni della Robbia,
has a woman’s face that resembles Eve’s.
In Christian tradition, Eve is often used as the exemplar of sexual temptation, a tendency not found in Judaism, where Lilith plays that role.
Furthermore, the serpent that tempted Eve was interpreted within most Christian traditions to have been Satan,
although there is no mention of this identification in the Torah.
In fact, Genesis does not even hint at any of these readings.
While such ideas are found in some of the Jewish apocrypha, their adoption by many Christians but not by modern
Judaism marked the radical split between the two religions.
Writings dealing with this subject are extant in Greek, Latin, Slavonic, Syriac, Armenian and Arabic.
They go back undoubtedly to a Jewish basis, but in some of the forms in which they appear at present they are Christianized throughout.
The oldest and for the most part Jewish portion of this literature is called Primary Adam Literature (see Life of Adam and Eve).
Before discussing Primary Adam Literature it is useful to mention other members of this literature,
which, though derivable ultimately from Jewish sources, are Christian in their present form;
This work has close affinities to the Conflict, but is said by Dillmann to be more original.
Drawing upon the statement in II Cor., xi, 3, where reference is made to Eve’s deception by the serpent,
and in I Tim., ii, 13-4, where the Apostle enjoins submission and silence upon women, arguing that
“Adam was first formed, then Eve. And Adam was not deceived, but the woman being deceived was in the transgression”,
because Eve had tempted Adam to eat of the fatal fruit, some early Fathers of the Church held her and all subsequent women to be the first sinners, and especially responsible for the Fall because of the sin of Eve.
She was also called
- “the lance of the demon”,
- “the road of iniquity”
- “the sting of the scorpion”,
- “a daughter of falsehood, the sentinel of Hell”,
- “the enemy of peace”
- and “of the wild beast, the most dangerous.”
- “You are the devil’s gateway,”
Tertullian told his female listeners in the early 2nd century, and went on to explain that all women were responsible for the death of Christ:
“On account of your desert – that is, death – even the Son of God had to die.”
In this way Eve is compared with the Greco-Roman myth of Pandora who was responsible for bringing evil into the world.
Saint Augustine, according to Elaine Pagels, used the sin of Eve to justify his idiosyncratic view of humanity as
permanently scarred by the Fall, which led to the Catholic doctrine of Original sin.
the Malleus Maleficarum (“Hammer of the Witches”), a central text in three centuries of persecution of “witches”.
Such “Eve bashing” is much more common in Christianity than in Judaism or Islam,
though major differences in the status of women does not seem to have been the result.
This is often balanced by the typology of the Madonna, much as “Old Adam” is balanced by Christ —
this is even the case in the Malleus whose authors were capable of writing things such as
“Justly we may say with Cato of Utica: If the world could be rid of women, we should not be without God in our intercourse.
For truly, without the wickedness of women, to say nothing of witchcraft, the world would still remain proof against innumerable dangers”,
but were aware that a large percentage of those accusing witches were female as well, and they perhaps feared losing their support:
- “There are also others who bring forward yet other reasons, of which preachers should be very careful how they make use.
- For it is true that in the Old Testament the Scriptures have much that is evil to say about women, and this because of the first temptress,
- Eve, and her imitators;
- yet afterwards in the New Testament we find a change of name, as from Eva to Ave (as S. Jerome says),
- and the whole sin of Eve taken away by the benediction of Mary.
- Therefore preachers should always say as much praise of them as possible.”
ok, so if that isn’t contradictory I don’t know what is….
In another example of “Eve bashing”,
Gregory of Tours reported that in the Council of Macon (585 CE), attended by 43 bishops,
one bishop maintained that woman could not be included under the term “man”, and as being responsible for Adam’s sin, had a deficient soul.
However, he accepted the reasoning of the other bishops and did not press his case, for the holy book of the Old Testament tells us that in the beginning, when God created man, “Male and female he created them” and the term used was Adam which means earthly man; he called the woman Eve, yet of both he used the word “man.”
Eve in Christian Art is most usually portrayed as the temptress of Adam, and often during the Renaissance the serpent in the Garden is portrayed as having a woman’s face identical to that of Eve.
Some Christians claim monogamy is implied in the story of Adam and Eve as one woman is created for one man.
Eve’s being taken from his side implies not only her secondary role in the conjugal state (1 Corinthians 11:9),
but also emphasizes the intimate union between husband and wife,
and the dependence of the latter on the former
“Wherefore a man shall leave father and mother, and shall cleave to his wife: and they shall be two in one flesh.”
Eve is commemorated as a matriarch in the Calendar of Saints of the Lutheran Church – Missouri Synod with Adam on December 19.
Eve too has different roles within Gnosticism.
For example she is often seen as the embodiment of the supreme feminine principle, called Barbelo (from Arb-Eloh), barbeloth, or barthenos.
As such she is equated with
the light-maiden of Sophia (Wisdom),
creator of the word (Logos) of God,
the “thygater tou photos”
the Virgin Maiden, “parthenos”.
In other texts she is equated with Zoe (Life).
Again, in conventional Christianity, this is a prefigurement of Mary, also sometimes called “the Second Eve”.
In other Gnostic texts, such as The Hypostasis of the Archons (The Reality of the Rulers), the Pistis Sophia is equated with Eve’s daughter, Norea, the wife of Seth.
As a result of such Gnostic beliefs, especially among Marcionites, women were considered
- equal to men,
- being revered as prophets,
- traveling evangelists,
- faith healers,
- priests and even
Adam and Eve expelled from Paradise,
Although she is mentioned in the hadith, Eve is not mentioned by name in the Qur’an, she is nevertheless referred to as Adam’s spouse,
and Islamic tradition refers to her in Arabic as حواء or Hawwāʾ.
Mention of Adam’s spouse is found in:
- verses 30-39 of Sura 2,
- verses 11-25 of Sura 7,
- verses 26-42 of Sura 15,
- verses 61-65 of Sura 17,
- verses 50-51 of Sura 18,
- verses 110-124 of Sura 20
- and in verses 71-85 of Sura 38.
Accounts of Adam and Eve in Islamic texts, which include the Quran and the books of Sunnah (Hadith), are similar but different to that of the Torah and Bible.
A similarity in particular, Sura 7:22-23 recounts:
- “By deceit he [Satan] brought them to their fall: when they tasted the tree, their shame became manifest to them and they began to sew together the leaves of the Garden over their bodies.
- And their Lord called unto them:
- Did I not forbid you that tree and tell you that Satan was your avowed enemy?”
- They said:
- “Our Lord we have wronged our own souls and if You forgive us not and bestow not upon us Your mercy, we shall certainly be lost.“
However, the Quran does not suggest that God created Eve independently from Adam, as opposed to some beliefs that she was.
It is generally believed by Muslims that Eve was created from Adam’s rib to be his partner and companion. Surah Al-Nisa 4:1:
- “O mankind, fear your Lord, who created you from one soul and created from it its mate and dispersed from both of them many men and women.
- And fear Allah , through whom you ask one another, and the wombs. Indeed Allah is ever, over you, an Observer.”
Another difference is that Eve is not blamed for enticing Adam to eat the forbidden fruit, nor is there the concept of original sin.
On the contrary, the Quran indicates that Adam initiated the eating of the fruit but God simply blames both of them
for the transgression as they both ate the fruit.
- “Then Satan whispered to him (Adam); he said, “O Adam, shall I direct you to the tree of eternity and possession that will not deteriorate?
- And Adam and his wife ate of it, and their private parts became apparent to them, and they began to fasten over themselves from the leaves of Paradise. And Adam disobeyed his Lord and erred.” (Quran – 20:121-122)
However, there are hadiths, which are contested, saying the Prophet Mohammed (narrated by Abu Hurrairah) designates Eve as the epitome of female betrayal.
“Narrated Abu Hurrairah:
The Prophet said, ‘Were it not for Bani Israel, meat would not decay; and were it not for Eve, no woman would ever betray her husband.'”
(Sahih Bukhari, Hadith 611, Volume 55)
An identical but more explicit version is found in the second most respected book of prophetic narrations, Sahih Muslim.
“Abu Hurrairah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported Allah’s Messenger (May peace be upon him) as saying:
Had it not been for Eve, woman would have never acted unfaithfully towards her husband.” (Hadith 3471, Volume 8).
The above verses from the Quran (20:121-122) are the reason these accounts are disputed and the authenticity of these hadiths is challenged.
As the Quran never blamed Eve for the sin that they both (Adam and Eve) committed together.
To condemn all the women in the world for a sin that Eve committed is against a basic Quranic teaching which states that:
- no soul is accountable for the sins of another:
Say, is it other than Allah I should desire as a lord while He is the Lord of all things?
And every soul earns not [blame] except against itself, and no bearer of burdens will bear the burden of another.
Then to your Lord is your return, and He will inform you concerning that over which you used to differ. (6:164)
`Abdu’l-Bahá describes Eve as a symbol of the soul and as containing divine mysteries.
The Bahá’í Faith claims the account of Eve in previous Abrahamic traditions is metaphorical.
- ^ “1 Timothy, chapter 2, verse 13”. Perseus.tufts.edu. Retrieved 2012-03-14.
- ^ American Heritage Dictionary
- ^ The Weidner “Chronicle” mentioning Kubaba from A.K. Grayson, Assyrian and Babylonian Chronicles (1975)
- ^ Munn, Mark (2004). “Kybele as Kubaba in a Lydo-Phrygian Context”: Emory University cross-cultural conference “Hittites, Greeks and Their Neighbors in Central Anatolia” (Abstracts)
- ^ Dever, William K (2005), “Did God Have A Wife? Archaeology And Folk Religion In Ancient Israel” (Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company)
- ^ Saul Olyan, Asherah (1988), pp. 70-71, contested by O. Keel
- ^ The Hebrew word “man” is גבר or ishah. The Hebrew word for woman is אישה or ish.
- ^ Polano, Hymen (1890) The Talmud. Selections from the contents of that ancient book… Also, brief sketches of the men who made and commented upon it, p. 280. F. Warne, ISBN 1-150-73362-4, digitized by Google Books on 7 July 2008
- ^ Kramer, Samuel Noah: “History Begins at Sumer: Thirty-Nine “Firsts” in Recorded History” (1956)
- ^ Kramer, Samuel Noah (1944, republished 2007), “Sumerian Mythology: A Study of the Spiritual and Literary Achievement in the Third Millenium B.C.” (Forgotten Books)
- ^ a b c d e f g h “Genesis 3”. Etext.virginia.edu. Retrieved 2012-03-14.
- ^ This (Gen.3:17) is the point at which Adam is first used as a proper name.
- ^ Hebrew: חַוָּה, Classical Hebrew: Ḥawwāh, Modern Israeli Hebrew: Khavah, meaning “life”.
- ^ “Genesis 4”. Etext.virginia.edu. Retrieved 2012-03-14.
- ^ “Adam and Eve”. The Walters Art Museum.
- ^ Translated from the Ethiopic (1882) by Malan. First translated by Dillmann (Das christl. Adambuch des Morgenlandes, 1853), and the Ethiopic book first edited by Trump (Abh. d. Münch. Akad. xv., 1870-1881).
- ^ Die Schatzhöhle translated by Carl Bezold from three Syriac MSS. in 1883 and subsequently edited in Syriac in 1888.
- ^ “Tertullian, “De Cultu Feminarum”, Book I Chapter I, ”Modesty in Apparel Becoming to Women in Memory of the Introduction of Sin Through a Woman” (in “The Ante-Nicene Fathers”)”. Tertullian.org. Retrieved 2012-03-14.
- ^ Krosney, Herbert (2007) “The Lost Gospel: the quest for the Gospel of Judas Iscariot” (National Geographic)
- ^ Beyond The Exotic: Women’s Histories In Islamic Societies – Page 9, Amira El Azhary Sonbol – 2005
- ^ Revisioning the Sacred: New Perspectives on a Bahái̓́ Theology – Volume 8 – Page 215 Jack McLean – 1997
- ^ Earth Circles: Baha’i Perspectives on Global Issues – Page 77, Michael Fitzgerald – 2003
- Genesis ii.7-iii.23
- Paulinus Minorita, Compendium
- Flood, John (2010) “Representations of Eve in Antiquity and the English Middle Ages” (Routledge)
- Norris, Pamela. (1998) “The Story of Eve” (MacMillan Books)
- Pagels, Elaine. (1989) “Adam, Eve and the Serpent” (Vintage Books)
- Tumanov, Vladimir. (2011) “Mary versus Eve: Paternal Uncertainty and the Christian View of Women].” Neophilologus: International Journal of Modern and Mediaeval Language and Literature 95 (4: 507-521.
Here are some other links for further reading.. if you wish:
Genesis 3, The Fall, and Adam and Eve’s sin by Matt Slick : http://carm.org/genesis-3-fall-and-adam-and-eves-sin
The Universe and Adam Appeared ‘Old’ Immediately:
Adam and Eve From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (Redirected from Hawwah)
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