The Drug BURUNDANGA

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The Drug BURUNDANGA

what is it, how does it work, how is it used & Urban Legends?

Lets start with the Urban Legend:

Subject: Be Alert & Cautious / Must read!!</p><br />
<p>A man came over and offered his services as a painter to a female who was putting gas in her car and left his card. She said no, but accepted his card out of kindness and got in the car. The man then got into a car driven by another gentleman. As the lady left the service station, she saw the men following her out of the station at the same time. Almost immediately, she started to feel dizzy and could not catch her breath. She tried to open the window and realized that the odor was on her hand; the same hand which accepted the card from the gentleman at the gas station.</p><br />
<p>She then noticed the men were immediately behind her and she felt she needed to do something at that moment. She drove into the first driveway and began to honk her horn repeatedly to ask for help. The men drove away but the lady still felt pretty bad for several minutes after she could finally catch her breath.</p><br />
<p>Apparently, there was a substance on the card that could have seriously injured her.</p><br />
<p>This drug is called 'BURUNDANGA' and it is used by people who wish to incapacitate a victim in order to steal from or take advantage of them like REPEATED GANG RAPE. This drug is four times more dangerous than the date rape drug and is transferable on simple cards.</p><br />
<p>So take heed and make sure you don't accept cards at any given time alone or from someone on the streets. This applies to those making house calls and slipping you a card when they offer their services .</p><br />
<p>PLEASE SEND THIS ALERT TO EVERY FEMALE YOU KNOW

Subject: Be Alert & Cautious / Must read!!
A man came over and offered his services as a painter to a female who was putting gas in her car and left his card. She said no, but accepted his card out of kindness and got in the car. The man then got into a car driven by another gentleman. As the lady left the service station, she saw the men following her out of the station at the same time. Almost immediately, she started to feel dizzy and could not catch her breath. She tried to open the window and realized that the odor was on her hand; the same hand which accepted the card from the gentleman at the gas station.
She then noticed the men were immediately behind her and she felt she needed to do something at that moment. She drove into the first driveway and began to honk her horn repeatedly to ask for help. The men drove away but the lady still felt pretty bad for several minutes after she could finally catch her breath.
Apparently, there was a substance on the card that could have seriously injured her.
This drug is called ‘BURUNDANGA’ and it is used by people who wish to incapacitate a victim in order to steal from or take advantage of them like REPEATED GANG RAPE. This drug is four times more dangerous than the date rape drug and is transferable on simple cards.
So take heed and make sure you don’t accept cards at any given time alone or from someone on the streets. This applies to those making house calls and slipping you a card when they offer their services .
PLEASE SEND THIS ALERT TO EVERY FEMALE YOU KNOW

Research done by friends:

Liz Burton After doing a little digging, I found that this drug is made from different plants in the nightshade family, and for it to have any effect through touch, the victim would have to have had prolonged exposure to the drug. Even then, it wouldn’t be serious enough to knock them out.
It IS,however, put into food or drink, or blown into victims faces to make them delirious.

Shadoe Knight Google the drug BURUNDANGA Urban Legend going around since 2008. Usually if a “drug” is mentioned just google the drug. I think there is also a site that has hundreds of Urban Myths & Legends. That’s always handy to have bookmarked.

ASK.com > Urban Legends says this is also FALSE

Snopes.com reports that this particular legend is FALSE.. Here’s why:

So What is it & WHY would it be appealing to criminals?

BURUNDANGA is the street version of a pharmaceutical drug called scopolamine.

It’s made from the extracts of plants in the nightshade family such as henbane and jimson weed.

Medical Dictionary>Burundanga says:

scopolamine: (redirected from Burundanga)

Also found in: Dictionary/thesaurus, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia

sco·pol·a·mine (sk-pl-mn, -mn)

n.

A thick, syrupy, colorless alkaloid extracted from plants such as henbane and used as a mydriatic, sedative, antiemetic, and treatment for motion sickness. Also called hyoscine.

The American Heritage® Medical Dictionary Copyright © 2007, 2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

scopolamine

[skōpol′əmēn]

Etymology: Giovanni A. Scopoli, Italian naturalist, 1723-1788

an anticholinergic alkaloid obtained from the leaves and seeds of several solanaceous plants. It is a central nervous system depressant.

indications It is prescribed for prevention of motion sickness and as an antiemetic, a sedative in obstetrics, and a cycloplegic and mydriatic.

contraindications Narrow-angle glaucoma, asthma, myasthenia gravis, obstruction of the genitourinary or GI tract, severe ulcerative colitis, and known hypersensitivity prohibit its use.

adverse effects Among the more serious adverse effects are blurred vision, central nervous system effects, tachycardia, dry mouth, decreased sweating, and hypersensitivity reaction. Also called hyoscine. See also transdermal scopolamine.

Mosby’s Medical Dictionary, 8th edition. © 2009, Elsevier.

scopolamine [sko-pol´ah-mēn]

an anticholinergic and antimuscarinic alkaloid derived from various plants, having a depressant effect on the central nervous system. Used as an antisialagogue preanesthetic medication and as an adjunct to general anesthesia, administered parenterally; as an antiemetic, administered orally or parenterally; and as a cycloplegic and mydriatic, applied topically to the conjunctiva. Called also hyoscine.

Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health, Seventh Edition. © 2003 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved.


scopolamine (skōpol´mēn),

n an alkaloid found in the leaves and seeds of
Atropa belladonna and other solanaceous plants having an action similar to atropine and used when spasmolytic or antisecretory effects are desired.

scopolamine, transdermal,

brand names: Transderm-Scōp, Transderm-V;
drug class: antiemetic, anticholinergic;
action: competitive antagonism of acetylcholine at receptor sites in the eye, smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, glandular cells; inhibition of vestibular input to the central nervous system (CNS), resulting in inhibition of vomiting reflex;
use: prevention of motion sickness.

Mosby’s Dental Dictionary, 2nd edition. © 2008 Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved.


scopolamine

an anticholinergic alkaloid derived from various plants, used as the hydrobromide in parasympathetic blockade and as a central nervous system depressant.

Saunders Comprehensive Veterinary Dictionary, 3 ed. © 2007 Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved


scopolamine (hyoscine)

Scopoderm TTS (UK), Transderm-Scop

Pharmacologic class: Antimuscarinic, belladonna alkaloid

Therapeutic class: Antiemetic, antivertigo agent, anticholinergic

Pregnancy risk category C

Action

Acts as competitive inhibitor at postganglionic muscarinic receptor sites of parasympathetic nervous system and on smooth muscles that respond to acetylcholine but lack cholinergic innervation. May block cholinergic transmission from vestibular nuclei to higher CNS centers and from reticular formation to vomiting center.

Availability

Injection: 0.3 mg/ml and 1 mg/ml in 1-ml vials, 0.4 mg/ml in 0.5-ml ampules and 1-ml vials, 0.86 mg/ml in 0.5-ml ampules

Tablets: 0.4 mg

Transdermal system (Transderm-Scop): 1.5 mg/patch (releases 0.5 mg scopolamine over 3 days)

Indications and dosages

➣ Excessive GI motility and hypertonia in irritable bowel syndrome, mild dysentery, diverticulitis, pylorospasm, and cardiospasm

Adults: 0.4 to 0.8 mg P.O. daily

➣ Preanesthetic sedation and obstetric amnesia

Adults: 0.3 to 0.6 mg I.M., I.V., or subcutaneously 45 to 60 minutes before anesthesia, usually given with analgesics

➣ Postoperative nausea and vomiting

Adults: One transdermal patch placed behind ear on evening before surgery and kept in place for 24 hours after surgery. For cesarean section, one transdermal patch placed behind ear 1 hour before surgery.

➣ Motion sickness

Adults: One transdermal patch placed behind ear 4 hours before anticipated need, replaced q 3 days if needed

Off-label uses

• Drooling

Contraindications

• Hypersensitivity to scopolamine, other belladonna alkaloids, or barbiturates
• Hypersensitivity to bromides (injection only)
• Angle-closure glaucoma
• Acute hemorrhage
• Myasthenia gravis
• Obstructive uropathy (including prostatic hypertrophy)
• Obstructive GI disease (including paralytic ileus and intestinal atony)
• Reflux esophagitis
• Ulcerative colitis or toxic megacolon
• Hepatic or renal impairment
• Chronic lung disease (with repeated doses)

Precautions

Use cautiously in:
• suspected intestinal obstruction; pulmonary or cardiac disease; tachyarrhythmia or tachycardia; open-angle glaucoma; autonomic neuropathy; hypertension; hyperthyroidism; ileostomy or colostomy
• history of seizures or psychosis
• elderly patients
• pregnant or breastfeeding patients (safety not established)
• children.

Administration

• For I.V. use, give by direct injection at prescribed rate after diluting with sterile water.
• After removing protective strip from transdermal patch, avoid finger contact with exposed adhesive layer to prevent contamination.

Route
Onset
Peak
Duration

P.O., I.M., subcut.
30 min
1 hr
4-6 hr

I.V.
10 min
1 hr
2-4 hr

Transdermal
4 hr
Unknown
72 hr

Adverse reactions

CNS: drowsiness, dizziness, confusion, restlessness, fatigue

CV: tachycardia, palpitations, hypotension, transient heart rate changes

EENT: blurred vision, mydriasis, photophobia, conjunctivitis

GI: constipation, dry mouth

GU: urinary hesitancy or retention

Skin: decreased sweating, rash

Interactions

Drug-drug. Antidepressants, antihistamines, disopyramide, quinidine: additive anticholinergic effects

Antidepressants, antihistamines, opioid analgesics, sedative-hypnotics: additive CNS depression

Oral drugs: altered absorption of these drugs

Wax-matrix potassium tablets: increased GI mucosal lesions

Drug-herbs. Angel’s trumpet, jimsonweed, scopolia: increased anticholinergic effects

Drug-behaviors. Alcohol use: increased CNS depression

Patient monitoring

• Assess vital signs and neurologic, cardiovascular, and respiratory status.
• Monitor patient for urinary hesitancy or retention.

Patient teaching

• Tell patient transdermal patch is most effective if applied to dry skin behind ear 4 hours before traveling.
• Caution patient to avoid touching exposed adhesive layer of transdermal patch.
• Advise patient to wash and dry hands thoroughly before and after applying patch.
• If patch becomes dislodged, instruct patient to remove it and apply new patch on a different site behind ear.
• Tell patient that using patch for more than 72 hours may cause withdrawal symptoms (headache, nausea, vomiting, dizziness). Advise him to limit use when feasible.
• Inform patient that his eyes may be markedly sensitive to light during patch use. Instruct him to wear sunglasses and use other measures to guard eyes from light.
• Caution patient to avoid alcohol because it may increase CNS depression.
• As appropriate, review all other significant adverse reactions and interactions, especially those related to the drugs, herbs, and behaviors mentioned above.

Nursing Spectrum Drug Handbook 2009. © 2009 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


scopolamine

®Therapeutics An atropine-like anticholinergic–or antimuscarinic, used in preanesthesia, where CNS depression is desirable, GI tract antispasmodic, to ↑ heart rate, and counteract vasodilation and low BP caused by choline esters Metabolism GI tract absorption,12 metabolized in liver, remainder in kidneys Adverse efects Dry mouth, tachycardia, palpitation, pupillary dilatation, blurring of vision, headache, dry
hot skin

McGraw-Hill Concise Dictionary of Modern Medicine. © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


sco·pol·a·mine (skō-pol’ă-mēn, -min),

An alkaloid found in the leaves and seeds of Hyoscyamus niger, Duboisia myoproides, Scopolia japonica, S. carniolica, Atropa belladonna, and other solanaceous plants; exerts anticholinergic actions similar to that of atropine, but is thought to have greater central nervous system effects; useful in preventing motion sickness; available as various salts.

Synonym(s): hyoscine

Farlex Partner Medical Dictionary © Farlex 2012


sco·pol·a·mine (skō-pol’ă-mēn)

An alkaloid found in the leaves and seeds of Hyoscyamus niger, and other solanaceous plants; exerts anticholinergic actions similar to that of atropine, but thought to have greater central nervous system effects; useful in preventing motion sickness; available as various salts.
Synonym(s): hyoscine.

Medical Dictionary for the Health Professions and Nursing © Farlex 2012


sco·pol·a·mine (skō-pol’ă-mēn, -min)

An alkaloid found in the leaves and seeds of various plants; exerts anticholinergic actions similar to that of atropine, but is thought to have greater central nervous system effects; useful in preventing motion sickness.
Synonym(s): hyoscine.

Medical Dictionary for the Dental Professions © Farlex 2012

WIKIPEDIA says:

Not to be confused with Hyoscyamine.

Scopolamine

Systematic (IUPAC) name

(–)-(S)-3-Hydroxy-2-phenylpropionic acid (1R,2R,4S,7S,9S)-9-methyl-3-oxa-9-azatricyclo[3.3.1.02,4]non-7-yl ester

Clinical data

Trade names
Transdermscop

AHFS/Drugs.com
monograph

Pregnancy cat.
C (US)

Legal status
Prescription Only (S4) (AU) -only (US)

Routes
transdermal, ocular, oral, subcutaneous, intravenous, sublingual, rectal, buccal transmucousal, intramuscular

Pharmacokinetic data

Bioavailability
10 – 50%[1]

Half-life
4.5 hours[1]

Identifiers

CAS number
51-34-3 Yes

ATC code
A04AD01 N05CM05, S01FA02

PubChem
CID 5184

IUPHAR ligand
330

DrugBank
DB00747

ChemSpider
10194106 Yes

UNII
DL48G20X8X Yes

KEGG
D00138 Yes

ChEBI
CHEBI:16794 Yes

ChEMBL
CHEMBL1201024

Chemical data

Formula
C17H21NO4

Mol. mass
303.353 g/mol

SMILES

OC[C@H]

(c1ccccc1)C(=O)O[C@@H]2C[C@H]3N(C)

[C@@H](C2)[C@@H]4O[C@H]34

InChI

InChI=1S/C17H21NO4/c1-18-13-7-11(8-14(18)16

-15(13)22-16)21-17(20)12(9-19)10-5-3-2-4-6

-10/h2-6,11-16,19H,7-9H2,1H3/t11-,12-,13-,14+,15-,16+/m1/s1 Yes

Key:STECJAGHUSJQJN-FWXGHANASA-N Yes

Scopolamine (USAN), also known as levo-duboisine and hyoscine (rINN), sold as Scopoderm, is a tropane alkaloid drug with muscarinic antagonist effects. It is among the secondary metabolites of plants from Solanaceae (nightshade) family of plants, such as henbane, jimson weed (Datura), angel’s trumpets (Brugmansia), and corkwood (Duboisia).[2][3] Scopolamine exerts its effects by acting as a competitive antagonist at muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, specifically M1 receptors; it is thus classified as an anticholinergic, antimuscarinic drug. (See the article on the parasympathetic nervous system for details of this physiology.)

Although scopolamine is a dangerous drug[citation needed], its anticholinergic properties give it some legitimate medical applications in very minute doses[citation needed]. As an example, in the treatment of motion sickness, the dose, gradually released from a transdermal patch, is only 330 micrograms (µg) per day[citation needed]. In rare cases, unusual reactions to ordinary doses of scopolamine have occurred, including confusion, agitation, rambling speech, hallucinations, paranoid behaviors, and delusions.

Scopolamine is named after the plant genus Scopolia.[3] The name “hyoscine” is from the scientific name for henbane, Hyoscyamus niger.[4]

History

One of the earlier alkaloids isolated from plant sources, scopolamine has been in use in its purified forms (such as various salts, including hydrochloride, hydrobromide, hydroiodide and sulfate), since its isolation by the German scientist Albert Ladenburg in 1880, and as various preparations from its plant-based form since antiquity and perhaps prehistoric times. Following the description of the structure and activity of scopolamine by Ladenburg, the search for synthetic analogues of and methods for total synthesis of scopolamine and/or atropine in the 1930s and 1940s resulted in the discovery of diphenhydramine, an early antihistamine and the prototype of its chemical subclass of these drugs, and pethidine, the first fully synthetic opioid analgesic, known as Dolatin and Demerol amongst many other trade names.

Scopolamine was used in conjunction with morphine, oxycodone, or other opioids from before 1900 into the 1960s to put mothers in labor into a kind of “twilight sleep“. The analgesia from scopolamine plus a strong opioid is deep enough to allow higher doses to be used as a form of anaesthesia.

Scopolamine mixed with oxycodone (Eukodal) and ephedrine was marketed by Merck as SEE (from the German initials of the ingredients) and Scophedal starting in 1928, and the mixture is sometimes mixed on site on rare occasions in the area of its greatest historical usage, namely Germany and Central Europe.

Scopolamine was also one of the active ingredients in Asthmador, an over-the-counter (OTC) smoking preparation marketed in the 1950s and ’60s claiming to combat asthma and bronchitis. In November 1990, the US Food and Drug Administration forced OTC products with scopolamine and several hundred other ingredients that had allegedly not been proved effective off the market. Scopolamine shared a small segment of the OTC sleeping pill market with diphenhydramine, phenyltoloxamine, pyrilamine, doxylamine, and other first-generation antihistamines, many of which are still used for this purpose in drugs such as Sominex, Tylenol PM, NyQuil, etc.

Medical use

Scopolamine has a number of uses in medicine:

  • Primary uses:
    • Its primary use is for the treatment of postoperative nausea and vomiting and sea sickness, leading to its use by scuba divers.[10][11]
    • Treatment of intestinal cramping
    • For ophthalmic purposes
    • As a general depressant and adjunct to narcotic painkillers
  • Secondary uses:
    • As a preanesthetic agent
    • As a drying agent for sinuses, lungs, and related areas: In otolaryngology, it is used to dry the upper airway (antisialogogue action) prior to instrumentation of the airway.
    • To reduce motility and secretions in the GI tract—most frequently in tinctures or other belladonna or stramonium preparations, often used in conjunction with other drugs as in Donnagel original forumulation, Donnagel-PG (with paregoric), Donnabarb/Barbadonna/Donnatal (with phenobarbital), and a number of others
    • Uncommonly, for some forms of Parkinsonism
    • As an adjunct to opioid analgesia, such as the proprietary fixed-ratio product Twilight Sleep and the technique after which it was named which contained morphine and scopolamine, Scophedal (oxycodone, ephedrine and scopolamine), some of the original formulations of Percodan, and some European brands of methadone injection[citation needed]
    • As an over-the-counter sedative, (until November 1990, scopolamine in minute doses could be purchased OTC in the United States): It can be used as a depressant of the central nervous system, and was formerly used as a bedtime sedative.

Scopolamine is an ingredient of Schlesinger’s Analgesic Solution, invented in the first decade of the previous century for use as a general-purpose analgesic, as well as drops for painful eye conditions, and an antitussive. The combination, as given in the 1913 US Pharmacopoeia and other national formularies, is 15 mg dionine hydrochloride, 10 mg morphine sulfate, and 125 µg scopolamine hydrobromide per cc. Some sources give the recipe as 1/4 grain dionine, 1/6 grain morphine, and ~29/810 grain of scopolamine; in some cases the salts of morphine and dionine may differ.

Nausea

It is used as an antiemetic in the form of a transdermal patch (applied behind the external ear).

Ophthalmic

The drug is used in eye drops to induce mydriasis (pupillary dilation) and cycloplegia (paralysis of the eye focusing muscle), primarily in the treatment of eye disorders that benefit from its prolonged effect, e.g. uveitis, iritis, iridocyclitis, etc.

Memory research

Because of its anticholinergic effects, scopolamine has been shown to prevent the activation of medial temporal lobe structures for novel stimuli during spatial memory tasks. It has also been shown to impair memory in humans to mimic the cognitive deficits found in Alzheimer’s dementia.

Adverse effects

The common side effects are related to the anticholinergic effect on parasympathetic postsynaptic receptors: dry mouth, throat, and nasal passages in overdose cases progressing to impaired speech, thirst, blurred vision, sensitivity to light, constipation, difficulty urinating, and tachycardia. Other effects of overdose include flushing and fever, as well as excitement, restlessness, hallucinations, or delirium. These side effects are commonly observed with oral or parenteral uses of the drug and generally not with topical ophthalmic use.

Use in scuba diving to prevent sea sickness has led to the discovery of another side effect. In deep water, below 50–60 feet, some divers have reported pain in the eyes that subsides quickly if the diver ascends to a depth of 40 feet or less.[citation needed] Mydriatics can precipitate an attack of glaucoma in susceptible patients, so the medication should be used with extra caution among divers who intend to go below 50 feet.[citation needed]

Drug interactions

When combined with morphine, scopolamine is useful for premedication for surgery or diagnostic procedures, and was widely used in obstetrics in the past; the mixture also produces amnesia and a tranquillised state known as twilight sleep, also the name of a proprietary drug available in the past in ampoules of injectable fluid containing morphine sulfate and scopolamine hydrobromide (and in some cases the phenothiazine antinauseants prochlorperazine or promethazine as a third ingredient). Although originally used in obstetrics, it is now considered dangerous for that purpose for both mother and baby.[citation needed]

Toxicity

Physostigmine is an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor that regularly crosses the blood-brain barrier, and has been used to treat the CNS depression symptoms of scopolamine toxicity.[12]

Recreational use

While it is occasionally used recreationally for its hallucinogenic properties, the experiences are often extremely mentally and physically unpleasant, and frequently physically dangerous, so repeated use is rare.[13]

The use of medical scopolamine/opioid combination preparations for euphoria is uncommon, but does exist and can be seen in conjunction with opioid use. Doses of scopolamine by itself near the therapeutic range can create euphoria and anxiolysis of anticholinergic origin, similar to that of some first-generation antihistamines and similar drugs.[citation needed]

Another separate group of users prefer dangerously high doses, especially in the form of datura preparations, for the deliriant and hallucinogenic effects. The hallucinations produced by scopolamine, in common with other potent anticholinergics, are especially realistic, with many users reporting hallucinations such as spiders crawling on walls and ceilings, especially in the dark. While some users find this pleasant, often the experience is not one the user would want to repeat. An overdose of scopolamine is also exceedingly unpleasant physically, and can be fatal, unlike the effect of other more commonly used hallucinogens. For these reasons, naturally occurring anticholinergics are rarely used for recreational purposes.

Scopolamine in transdermal, oral, sublingual, and injectable formulations can produce a cholinergic rebound effect when high doses are stopped. This is the opposite of scopolamine’s therapeutic effects: sweating, runny nose, abdominal cramps, nausea, vomiting, vertigo, dizziness, irritability, and diarrhea. Psychological dependence is also possible when the drug is taken for its tranquilizing effects.[citation needed]

Scopolamine related hospitalizations

Nevertheless, about one in five emergency room admissions for poisoning in Bogotá, Colombia, have been attributed to scopolamine.[14] In June 2008, more than 20 people were hospitalized with psychosis in Norway after ingesting counterfeit Rohypnol tablets containing scopolamine.[15]

Use in interrogation

The effects of scopolamine were studied by criminologists in the early 20th century.[16] However, scopolamine as a “truth drug” was not seriously tested for this purpose until the 1950s, when it was experimented on by various intelligence agencies, including the CIA as part of Project MKULTRA. In 2009, it was proved that Czechoslovak communist secret police used scopolamine at least three times to obtain confessions from alleged anti-state conspirators.[17] Because of a number of undesirable side effects, scopolamine was shortly disqualified as a truth drug.[18]

Criminal use

In 1910, it was detected in the remains believed to be those of Cora Crippen, wife of Dr. Hawley Harvey Crippen, and was accepted at the time as the cause of her death, since her husband was known to have bought some at the start of the year.[19]

In 2008, Vice News aired an episode called Colombian Devil’s Breath recounting the use of scopolamine by Colombian criminals as a suggestion drug. The two-part investigation contains multiple first-hand accounts of its use.[20]

Scopolamine has been used under the name burundanga in Venezuelan and Thailand resorts in order to drug and then rob tourists. While there are unfounded rumors that delivery mechanisms include using pamphlets and flyers laced with the drug, not enough is readily absorbed through the skin to have an effect. However, spiked alcoholic drinks are occasionally used.

Sufferers of scopolamine overdose are often admitted to a hospital in police custody, under the assumption that the patient is experiencing a psychotic episode.[citation needed] A telltale sign is a fever accompanied by a lack of sweat.[citation needed]

Scopolamine is used criminally as a date rape drug and as an aid to robbery,[21] the most common act being the clandestine drugging of a victim’s drink.[21] It is preferred because it induces anterograde amnesia, or an inability to recall events a certain amount of time after its administration or during the time of intoxication.[citation needed]

Per the United States State Department (March 4, 2012): “One common and particularly dangerous method that criminals use in order to rob a victim is through the use of drugs. The most common has been scopolamine. Unofficial estimates put the number of annual scopolamine incidents in Colombia at approximately 50,000. Scopolamine can render a victim unconscious for 24 hours or more. In large doses, it can cause respiratory failure and death. It is most often administered in liquid or powder form in foods and beverages. The majority of these incidents occur in night clubs and bars, and usually men, perceived to be wealthy, are targeted by young, attractive women. To avoid becoming a victim of scopolamine, one should never accept food or beverages offered by strangers or new acquaintances or leave food or beverages unattended. Victims of scopolamine or other drugs should seek immediate medical attention.”[22]

References
  1. ^ a b Putcha, L.; Cintrón, N. M.; Tsui, J.; Vanderploeg, J. M.; Kramer, W. G. (1989). “Pharmacokinetics and Oral Bioavailability of Scopolamine in Normal Subjects”. Pharmacology Research 6 (6): 481–485. doi:10.1023/A:1015916423156. PMID 2762223.
  2. ^ Muranaka, T.; Ohkawa, H.; Yamada, Y. (1993). “Continuous Production of Scopolamine by a Culture of Duboisia leichhardtii Hairy Root Clone in a Bioreactor System”. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 40 (2–3): 219–223. doi:10.1007/BF00170370.
  3. ^ a b The Chambers Dictionary. Allied Publishers. 1998. pp. 788, 1480. ISBN 978-81-86062-25-8.
  4. ^ Cattell, Henry Ware (1910). Lippincott’s new medical dictionary: a vocabulary of the terms used in medicine, and the allied sciences, with their pronunciation, etymology, and signification, including much collateral information of a descriptive and encyclopedic character. Lippincott. p. 435. Retrieved 25 February 2012.
  5. ^ a b c Ziegler, J.; Facchini, P. J. (2008). “Alkaloid Biosynthesis: Metabolism and Trafficking”. Annual Review of Plant Biology 59 (1): 735–769. doi:10.1146/annurev.arplant.59.032607.092730.
  6. ^ Li, R.; Reed, D. W.; Liu, E.; Nowak, J.; Pelcher, L. E.; Page, J. E.; Covello, P. S. (2006). “Functional Genomic Analysis of Alkaloid Biosynthesis in Hyoscyamus niger Reveals a Cytochrome P450 Involved in Littorine Rearrangement”. Chemistry & Biology 13 (5): 513–520. doi:10.1016/j.chembiol.2006.03.005.
  7. ^ White, P. F.; Tang, J.; Song, D. et al. (2007). “Transdermal Scopolamine: An Alternative to Ondansetron and Droperidol for the Prevention of Postoperative and Postdischarge Emetic Symptoms”. Anesthesia and Analgesia 104 (1): 92–96. doi:10.1213/01.ane.0000250364.91567.72. PMID 17179250.
  8. ^ “Transderm Scop patch prescribing information”.
  9. ^ “NASA Signs Agreement to Develop Nasal Spray for Motion Sickness”.
  10. ^ Bitterman, N.; Eilender, E.; Melamed, Y. (1991). “Hyperbaric Oxygen and Scopolamine”. Undersea Biomedical Research 18 (3): 167–174. PMID 1853467. Retrieved 2008-08-13.
  11. ^ Williams, T. H.; Wilkinson, A. R.; Davis, F. M.; Frampton, C. M. (1988). “Effects of Transcutaneous Scopolamine and Depth on Diver Performance”. Undersea Biomedical Research 15 (2): 89–98. PMID 3363755.
  12. ^ Clinical anesthesia (6th ed. ed.). Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. 2009. p. 346. ISBN 978-0-7817-8763-5.
  13. ^ Freye, E. (2010). “Toxicity of Datura Stramonium”. Pharmacology and Abuse of Cocaine, Amphetamines, Ecstasy and Related Designer Drugs. Netherlands: Springer. pp. 217–218. doi:10.1007/978-90-481-2448-0_34. ISBN 978-90-481-2447-3.
  14. ^ Uribe-Granja, Manuel; Moreno-López, Claudia L.; Zamora S., Adriana; Acosta, Pilar J. (September 2005). “Perfil epidemiológico de la intoxicación con burundanga en la clínica Uribe Cualla S. A. de Bogotá, D. C” (pdf). Acta Neurológica Colombiana (in Spanish) 21 (3): 197–201.
  15. ^ “Bilsykemedisin i falske rohypnol-tabletter”. Aftenposten.no.
  16. ^ House, R. E. (September 1922). “The Use of Scopolamine in Criminology”. Texas State Journal of Medicine 18: 256–263.
    reprinted House, R. E. (1931). “The Use of Scopolamine in Criminology”. American Journal of Police Science (Northwestern University) 2 (4): 328–336. doi:10.2307/1147361. JSTOR 1147361.
  17. ^ Gazdík, J.; Navara, L. (2009-08-08). “Svědek: Grebeníček vězně nejen mlátil, ale dával jim i drogy” [A witness: Grebeníček not only beat prisoners, he also administered drugs to them] (in Czech). iDnes. Retrieved 2009-08-10.
  18. ^ “”Truth” Drugs in Interrogation”. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 14 June 2012.
  19. ^ “The Trial of H.H. Crippen” ed. by Filson Young (Notable British Trials series, Hodge, 1920), p. xxvii; see also evidence, pp. 68-77.
  20. ^ Andrews, Dale (2013-02-28). “Daturas”. Crime Poisons. SleuthSayers. Retrieved 4 March 2013 location=Washington.
  21. ^ a b http://www.sobercircle.com/index.asp?node=resources&section=articles&fileid=8%7C Retrieved 20/11/07
  22. ^ https://www.osac.gov/Pages/ContentReportDetails.aspx?cid=12118 Colombia 2012 Crime and Safety Report: Cartagena

For the following, Please click this link to see the other data: o click each link individually.. you will find the SHOW button on the table where these are listed.

Ancient anaesthesia

Antiemetics (A04)

Hypnotics/sedatives (N05C)

Ophthalmologicals: mydriatics and cycloplegics (S01F)

Hallucinogens

Euphoriants

Antiaddictives (N07B)

Analgesics (N02A, N02B)

Cholinergics

Search Categories:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scopolamine

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