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Image by deb roby
By Amy Grant
If you are noticing brown spotted leaves on veggies in the garden or complete leaf browning in your vegetable plants, don’t panic. There are a number of reasons why you may see leaf browning in vegetable plants: inadequate water, too much water, overzealous fertilization, soil contamination, disease or insect infestation. Let’s learn more about leaves turning brown on vegetable plants.
What is Causing Brown Leaves on Vegetables?
The symptom is obvious; now we need to diagnose….
Bee Keeping & Apiaries in Tennessee
–What you need to know
You’ve heard about the dangers of the world loosing it’s bee population and want to help in some way, maybe even start your own.
But Where do you begin?
You could jump right in and do things the hard way, and face HUGE fines, OR start with the basics.
Here is what you need to know.
The honey bee is the official state agricultural insect.
Honey bees perform a pollination function that is essential to the propagation of many species of plants in Tennessee.
The mission of the Apiary program is to protect this valuable resource.
The Tennessee Department of Agriculture maintains beekeeper registration files, works through the Tennessee Agricultural Enhancement Program to offer cost share opportunities and performs collaborative research and educational seminars with the University of Tennessee.
- The University of Tennessee *UT* offers Beekeeping classes.
Here is their link if you would like more information on what they do & the specifics on their classes: http://bees.tennessee.edu/
The Tennessee Beekeepers Association Has information & PDF files and documents that you will need to look through as well.
A good site to save for further reference on Tennessee Beekeeping!
Healthy productive colonies of bees not only produce more honey, they also provide better pollination for our nations food supply. Proper pollination yields larger, more uniform shaped, marketable fruits and vegetables.
The Department provides a list of local honey producers for consumers and retail outlets looking for sources of local honey.
Contact TDA Marketing Division for more information.
To receive apiary applications or a pollination list by mail, or for more in-depth information, call Michael Studer, State Apiarist, at 615-837-5342.
***Important Important Important!!***
If you are in Tennessee, ALL NEW Apiaries MUST be registered with the Tennessee Department of Agriculture!!!
The Apiary Act of 1995 includes a section on registration of apiaries. In the Apiary Act, new apiaries are required to be registered with the Tennessee Department of Agriculture. These apiaries are required to be re-registered every 3 years.
The list of registered beekeepers and apiaries is maintained by the State Apiarist and upon registration, the beekeeper receives a unique registration number. This number is the beekeeper’s personal registration number and can be used to brand hives and equipment.
There are a number of benefits to registering your apiary:
- E-mail notification of disease outbreaks and updates from the State Apiarist.
- E-mail and postal notification of aerial spraying of pesticides in your area when we are notified of the spraying projects.
- Free inspection of your colonies if you are selling them, moving them or you feel you may have a bee health problem.
- Registering your bees helps to protect your bees and your neighbor’s bees in the case of an American Foulbrood (AFB) outbreak or other regulatory pest.
- If your colonies have to be destroyed due to American Foulbrood or other regulated pest or disease you will be compensated if they are registered. There is no indemnity paid for the loss of unregistered bee colonies.
What can happen if you do not register your bees or your apiary?
- Failure to register you bees or comply with the provisions of “The Apiary Act of 1995” may result in the confiscation your bees, beekeeping equipment and a $500.00 fine.
- If your colonies have to be destroyed due to American Foulbrood or other regulated pest or disease you will not be compensated if they are not registered.
Please remember that by law all honey bee colonies in the state of Tennessee are required to be registered with this office.
All honey bees and used equipment transported into, out of, within or through the state of Tennessee are required by law to be inspected.
Here is a list/links for the DOWNLOADABLE Apiary Forms, Applications and Permits you will need:
- Apiary Inspection Request
- Apiary Registration Form
- Application to Move Honeybees or Used Equipment into TN
- Application to Establish an Experimental Apiary in TN
- Honeybee Best Management Practices Policy
- Honeybee Best Management Practices Agreement
- Reporting Movement of Honeybee Colonies for Pollination within TN
- Request for Apiary Information
- Request to be Placed on Pollinator List for Growers
- Request to be Placed on Swarm Removal Services List
- Request to be Placed on Structural Honeybee Removal List
- Request to be Placed on List to Sell Local Honey and Other Products
- Request to be Removed From Any/All Above Lists
- Apiary Section Complaint Form
- World of Beekeeping from WA has a FREE Basic Bee Keeping Kit (your first email will be an interview or whatever they are offering at the time)
just fill in your name & email.
They also have a Step-By-Step DVD you can purchase. Here’s the link: http://www.worldofbeekeeping.com/get-started/
These websites all recommend JOINING a Beekeepers Club, or organization of some type, and is probably the single most useful thing you can do.
It provides an invaluable source of information, instruction, advice and assistance, as well as having some of the equipment
– such as an extractor – which can be borrowed or rented when necessary.
Even if the club itself doesn’t own any equipment, there is often a member who is prepared to lend you something.
Often there will be talks and demonstrations which will help clarify some of the confusing things one reads about.
If there are no Tennessee beekeeping associations in your area I strongly advise you to consider starting one.
It’s surprising how many people are interested once the word gets around.
For convenience I am including a list of known Beekeepers for the State of Tennessee.
- Columbia Area Beekeeperrs Association
Contact: Jack Wohlfarth, President
Web Site: http://www.columbiaareabeekeepers.com
Culleoka Tennessee 38451
We typically meet on the first Sunday of each month at 2pm in the Conference Building at the Tennessee Agriculture Experiment Station in Spring Hill. The general public is invited to attend.
- Clinch Valley Beekeepers Association
Sneedville TN 37869
We have 149 very active members.
- Aaron Burns
Knoxvile TN 37917
Free removal of swarms in and around the Knoxville area
- Montgomery County Beekeepers Association
Tel Number: 931-645-3110
Web Site: http://www.mcbaonline.ning.com
305 Pageant lane
Clarksville TN 37040
The Montgomery County Beekeepers Association meets the first Saturday of every month (excluding January)in the public library at 10:00 am and is open to the public.
- WASHINGTON CO BKPRS ASSN
247 Cain Dr
Blountville, TN 37617
- MEMPHIS AREA BKPRS ASSOC
250 Leonard Lane
Brighton, TN 38011
- JACKSON AREA BKPRS
7030 Shaw Chapel Rd
Brownsville, TN 38012
- RUTHERFORD COUNTY BKPRS ASSOC
7119 Hutson Rd
Christiana, TN 37037
- ANDERSON CO BKPRS ASSN
632 Pine Ride Rd
Clinton, TN 37716
- CUMBERLAND COUNTY BKPRS ASSOC
711 Genesis Rd.
Crossville, TN 38555
- NW GEORGIA BKPRS ASSOC
6807 Cedar Wood Court
East Ridge, TN 37412
- BEEKEEPERS OF MIDDLE TENNESSEE
509 Ellington Dr
Franklin, TN 37064-5013
- SUMNER COUNTY BKPRS ASSOC
285 Vantrease Rd.
Gallatin, TN 37066
- DAVY CROCKETT BKPRfS ASSOC
3785 Kelley Gap Rd.
Greeneville, TN 37743
- KNOX CO BKPRS ASSOC
6729 Ottinger Dr
Knoxville, TN 37920
- CAMPBELL CO BKPRS ASSOC
1064 Davis Chapel Rd
LaFollette, TN 37766
- LOUDON CO BKPRS ASSN
8633 Hwy 11 E
Lenoir City, TN 37772
- TN BKPRS ASSN
771 Dyer Rd.
Luttrell, TN 37779
- BLOUNT CO BKPRS ASSN
875 Bert Garner Lane
Maryville, TN 37803
- NASHVILLE AREA BKPRS ASSN
David A Young
902 Kingfisher Point
Nashville, TN 37221
- ROANE-MORGAN BKPRS ASSOC
919 Snow Hill Rd
Oakdale, TN 37829
- CHEATHAM COUNTY BKPRS ASSOC
1241 Substation Rd.
Pleasant View, TN 37146
- CHEROKEE BKPRS ASSN
1211 Mayflower Rd
Sale Creek, TN 37373
- SEVIER CO BKPRS ASSN
John R Kelley
613 Sandy Point Lane
Sevierville, TN 37876
- DUCK RIVER BKPRS ASSN
PO Box 303
Shelbyville, TN 37162
- WILSON CO BKPRS ASSN
3900 Rock Springs Rd
Watertwon, TN 37184
- ELK VALLEY BKPRS ASSOC
406 Joyce Lane
Winchester, TN 37388
There are pages upon pages of videos on YOUTUBE about beekeeping, but after talking with a friend & doing some research, I would not recommend jumping into Bees until you have the basics & done the other research from the links provided on this blog and talked to someone in your area that already has an Avery. This really may NOT be for you!
Rossman Apiaries in GA, also has some very valuable information worth checking out, as well as the ability to purchase your Bees & the Queens!
Hope this has helped some…. Enjoy your Apiary & Thank you for helping Save our Bees!
It’s raining and feels like fall in Colorado today…. soooo….
Willow Bird Baking for more amazing recipes!
Now let’s move on to the larger containers for storage…
Water Storage Towers
You do have the option of connecting together several of the above water barrels to add additional storage, however that may not provide enough water for animals, gardens, greenhouses, & other household uses.
Please remember that this type of storage container can vary GREATLY in size depending on your needs, from small garden towers to those needed for towns.
Here we will cover the smaller versions.
First we should talk a little about how water towers work so the basics & directions make sense.
Essentially, rain water is captured in a storage tank located at the top of the tower and released through standard valves and faucets at the other end of the pipe system connected to the storage tank.
The purpose of a water tower is to provide running water with the pressure resulting from the gravity as water falls through pipes from the high tower.
A big reason for the level of reliability in water pressure is the water tower.
Tower, Tank and Pump
A water tower is an incredibly simple device. Although water towers come in all shapes and sizes, they all do the same thing: A water tower is simply a large, elevated tank of water. For example, take the water tower shown above. This tower is located in Kill Devils Hill, near Kitty Hawk, NC. It is about 165 feet (50 meters) tall.
Water towers are tall to provide pressure. Each foot of height provides 0.43 PSI (pounds per square Inch) of pressure. A typical municipal water supply runs at between 50 and 100 PSI (major appliances require at least 20 to 30 PSI). The water tower must be tall enough to supply that level of pressure to all of the houses and businesses in the area of the tower. So water towers are typically located on high ground, and they are tall enough to provide the necessary pressure. In hilly regions, a tower can sometimes be replaced by a simple tank located on the highest hill in the area.
A water tower’s tank is normally quite large. A normal in-ground swimming pool in someone’s backyard might hold something like 20,000 or 30,000 gallons (that’s a lot of water!), and a typical water tower might hold 50 times that amount!
Typically, a water tower’s tank is sized to hold about a day’s worth of water for the community served by the tower. If the pumps fail (for example, during a power failure), the water tower holds enough water to keep things flowing for about a day.
One of the big advantages of a water tower is that it lets a municipality size its pumps for average rather than peak demand. That can save a community a lot of money.
Say that the water consumption for a pumping station averages 500 gallons of water per minute (or 720,000 gallons over the course of a day). There will be times during the day when water consumption is much greater than 500 gallons per minute. For example, in the morning, lots of people wake up at about the same time (say 7:00 a.m.) to go to work. They go to the bathroom, take a shower, brush their teeth, etc. Water demand might peak at 2,000 gallons per minute at 7 a.m. — there is a big cost difference between a 500-gallon-per-minute pump and a 2,000-gallon-per-minute pump.
Because of the water tower, the municipality can purchase a 500-gallon-per-minute pump and let the water tower handle the peak demand. At night, when demand normally falls to practically zero, the pump can make up the difference and refill the water tower.
In most towns, the water people drink comes from either a well, a river or a reservoir (normally a local lake). The water is treated in a water treatment plant to remove sediment (by filtration and/or settling) and bacteria (typically with ozone, ultraviolet light and chlorine). The output from the water treatment plant is clear, germ-free water. A high-lift pump pressurizes the water and sends it to the water system’s primary feeder pipes. The water tower is attached to the primary feeders quite simply, as shown in this diagram:
If the pump is producing more water than the water system needs, the excess flows automatically into the tank. If the community is demanding more water than the pump can supply, then water flows out of the tank to meet the need.
Form and Function
Water towers come in all shapes and sizes. Take, for example, this giant peach along I-85 in Gaffney, South Carolina.
In a city, tall buildings often need to solve their own water pressure problems. Because the buildings are so tall, they often exceed the height that the city’s water pressure can handle. So a tall building will have its own pumps and its own water towers. In the following picture, taken from the Empire State Building in New York City, there are at least 30 small water towers visible on the tops of these buildings.
Another interesting fact about water towers —
they can affect your insurance rates!
During a fire, the water demand increases significantly and may greatly exceed the capacity of the pumps at the water plant. A water tower guarantees that there will be enough pressure to keep water flowing through the fire hydrants. Fire insurance rates are normally lower in a community in which the water system has water towers.
The next time you are out driving around, especially if you are driving through a series of small towns, take the time to notice the water towers. Now that you know how they work, you will be amazed by how many you see and by all the different forms they take!
How do you design & build a tower?
Here is a sample of simple directions for a model (used for demonstration)
Get plumbing parts from (Home depot)
- a short section of 4 inch plastic pipe with a glued on top
- and then at the bottom glue a plastic pipe piece called a reduction which went from the 4 inch to 1 1/2 inch plastic.
- Then glue in a 1 1/2 inch plastic valve
- finished it with a short piece of 1 1/2 inch plastic pipe to make the downwards piece.
- Turn it upside down fill it
- close the valve
- then turn it right side up
- when you open the valve all the water rushes out pretty quickly.
Find the plumbing guy and tell him what you want to do and you can get all the pieces in 1 trip.
You can Custom Design Your Own Tower Here
They will prepare a preliminary design for you to review along with a quote for your tower design.
HERE is a link for more varieties of pre-designed plans &/or Towers for Sale.
OR you can make your own
There are several ways to build water towers….
Each construction method must emphasize pressure and height in order to provide an even water pressure for a municipality or a building. As long as these basic requirements are met, a high degree of creativity can go into building the exterior of the water tower.
Below are some basics for a tower big enough for a community office building or house.
Materials and Design
To construct a water tower, you may use a variety of materials, as long as the intrinsic design of the tower is structurally stable.
Steel and concrete will provide both stability and endurance through weather conditions. Whatever materials are used, the reserve tank of the water tower should be fully supported by columns and be at the very top of the structure.
In some cases, water towers can double as living spaces or office complexes. The basic construction remains the same, in that the water tank itself is suspended high enough in the air to generate sufficient psi for the community, but the underlying support columns can be sealed off, and other usable spaces can be created.
The simplest water tower design is for a single residential building. You may place the water reserve tank on top of the pre-existing building and utilize the structure of the building as the support.
When constructing a water tower, build the exterior to best reflect the character of the people who use it.
Because water towers often act as landmarks for small towns, the exterior design can be a way to express the character of the town. While many towns opt to label their water towers with the town’s name, some municipalities go further and choose a more creative exterior.
As long as the basic structural components of the water tower are met, the exterior of the tower may be designed to resemble fruits, sporting balls or any other objects that have the same general shape as the reserve tank. Creativity, budget concerns and taste all play a role in the ultimate design of the exterior.
In Great Britain, a water tower was concealed with a house built around it to prevent the actual tower from disrupting the scenic view of the community in which it sat. Today, this house in clouds continues to stand.
Below are a few videos from Wranglerstar that may help..
How to Build a 500 gal Water Tower
There are alot of helpful videos down the right side of these videos on youtube, so please be sure to check them out as well.
Now we will do at least one that’s a little simpler
Water Barrel Towers
Jodie & Julie from Food Storage Made Easy really have made this an easy process!
Below is an article & video they have explaining how they did it AND some information on how you can get some discounts!
Storing 55 gallon barrels comes with Pros and Cons:
– Great solution for storing LOTS of water
– Available in multiple sizes from 30 gallons up to 250 gallons
– With additives, can extend rotation needs to every 5 years
– Slightly difficult to fill and rotate
– Not very accessible when you have to actually USE the water
– Not an ideal solution in small homes/storage areas and shouldn’t be stored outside
|WATER BARREL TOWER
A couple of months ago, we were contacted by Trigen Manufacturing and we got some of their water barrel towers. Their water barrel towers solve the typical cons to the regular way of storing 55 gallon barrels. Rotating and filing the barrels is a breeze compared to when they are upright. Not only is rotation easier, it is a space saver too!Both of us got one of their 3 barrel towers. Jodi’s husband built her tower and they took a video of it in case you are wanting to know how to build the actual shelf. The shelf comes with instructions, and the shelf is pretty basic so it’s not too difficult:
Putting the Tower together:
Darin from Trigen was kind enough to come over and help Julie get the barrels plumbed and ready for filling. This video shows you the tower fully built with the water barrels on it, and how to assemble the plumbing kit:
To order call: 801-997-0575. Make sure you mention Food Storage Made Easy when you order to get the following discounts:
- $20 off the Triple Barrel Tower with Upgraded Plumbing kit
- $10 off Triple Barrel Tower with Basic Plumbing Kit
- $10 off the Double Barrel Tower with Upgraded Plumbing kit
- $10 off the Double Barrel Tower with Basic Plumbing kit
Visit Trigen Manufacturing for pricing and full list of contents. To get the discount, make a phone order and mention Food Storage Made Easy.
Pick up your barrels here:
Here is a video with FULL Tutorial on Rain Water Barrel Setup
Once again there are several links along the right side of the Youtube page that will give you ideas & instructions, so Please check them out as well.
Other Articles of Intrest associated with this topic that you will need:
- A Medium Sized Rain Water Collection System
- How to Clean a Water Storage Tank
- How to Buy Large Water Storage Tanks
- How to Clean a Portable Water Storage Tank
- How to Prepare for Emergency Water Storage
- How to Size Hot Water Storage Tanks
- How to Build a Water Storage Tank
- How to Treat Water Storage Tank Water
- How to Clean Water From Large Storage Tanks
- How to Build Wooden Above Ground Water Storage Tanks
- How to Treat Water for Storage
- Why don’t water towers freeze solid in the winter?
- Water Pressure and Flow Rate
- Water-Towers.com: Water Tower Information
- Unique Water Towers
- TreeHugger: Water Cycle
Banana Cream Pie Bites (Paleo)
Now I would never peer pressure you into making anything you did not want to, but I am seriously pressuring you with these. Make them!
What you will need:
- 2 bananas (not overly ripe)
- 4 cups of shredded unsweetened coconut (do not use flakes or reduced fat coconut. It will not work)
That’s it! Only three ingredients to make this treat.
- Place your shredded coconut and about 4 dashes of cinnamon into a food processor and process until you have a nice and creamy coconut butter.
- Slice up your bananas into bite size pieces.
- Dip each slice into the coconut butter and thoroughly coat both sides.
- Place each coated banana slice onto a piece of parchment paper.
- When you are all done, sprinkle cinnamon onto each slice.
- Place in the freezer for about 30-40 minutes to initially set and then move to the fridge IF you have any leftovers.
These taste just like banana cream pie! They have a custard like crust and a gooey cold banana inside.